By Jeffrey B. Graham (Editor)
Air respiring Fishes: Evolution, range, and model is exclusive in its insurance of the evolution of air-breathing, incongruously since it focuses completely on fish. this significant and engaging e-book, containing 9 chapters that current the lifestyles heritage, ecology, and body structure of many air-breathing fishes, offers a very good evaluate of air-breathing biology.Each bankruptcy offers a historic heritage, info the current prestige of data within the box, and defines the questions desiring recognition in destiny examine. completely referenced, containing greater than 1,000 citations, and good documented with figures and tables, Air-Breathing Fishes is finished in its assurance and should definitely have extensive attraction. Researchers in vertebrate biology, paleontology, ichthyology, vertebrate evolution, typical historical past, comparative body structure, anatomy and lots of different fields will locate anything new and interesting in Air-Breathing Fishes. Key good points* deals a whole evaluation of a huge and immensely attention-grabbing region of analysis* offers a point of view of air-breathing fish that spans three hundred million years of vertebrate evolution* comprises quite a few illustrations in addition to finished charts* offers a synoptic therapy of all of the identified air-breathing species with vital info on their morphological and physiological variations
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Anguilla. Infradivision Euteleostei Superorder Ostariophysi The Ostariophysans are a diverse group containing four orders (Gonorynchiformes, Characiformes, Cypriniformes, and Siluriformes) and numbering over 6000 species. Ostariophysans are united by skeletal 29 similarities, the presence of the alarm reaction (Schreckstoffe), and, in most, the presence of a Weberian apparatus connecting the gas bladder to the inner ear. The latter is rudimentary in the Gonorynchiformes but well developed in the other orders (Lauder and Liem, 1983a; Liem, 1988, 1989a).
Still, there are reports of obligatory air breathing in C. batrachus, C. lazera and C. mossambicus (Das, 1927; Moussa, 1956; Greenwood, 1961; Singh and Hughes, 1971). Johnston et al. (1983) described Clarias mossambicus as an obligatory air breather based only on their finding that two small fish survived less than 52 hours in normoxic water without access to air. Intra- and interspecific variations in the extent of ABO development in Clarias may explain the differences in air-breathing capacity found by various investigators.
Except for the parasitic forms, these fishes feed on small benthic invertebrates. , 1990). Both species are facultative air breathers and use their stomach as an ABO. Callichthyidae. The callichthyids are one of two armored catfish families (see following) so named because of their covering of bony plated scales. Included in this family are eight genera and about 110 species ranging throughout the freshwaters of South America and into Panama. 5) grow to 20 cm. 1) but may be present in every genus and species in this family (Kramer and McClure, 1980).